Skip to content


Panther supports WebSockets routing just like APIs

Structure & Requirements#

Create WebSocket Class#

Create the BookWebsocket() in app/ which inherited from GenericWebsocket:

from panther.websocket import GenericWebsocket

class BookWebsocket(GenericWebsocket):
    async def connect(self):
        await self.accept()

    async def receive(self, data: str | bytes):
        # Just Echo The Message
        await self.send(data=data)

We are going to discuss it below ...

Update URLs#

Add the BookWebsocket in app/

from app.websockets import BookWebsocket

urls = {
    'ws/book/': BookWebsocket,

How It Works?#

  1. Client tries to connect to your ws/book/ url with websocket protocol
  2. The connect() method of your BookWebsocket is going to call
  3. You should validate the connection with self.headers, self.query_params or etc
  4. Then accept() the connection with self.accept() otherwise it is going to be rejected by default.
  5. Now you can see the unique connection_id which is specified to this user with self.connection_id, you may want to store it somewhere (db, cache, or etc.)
  6. If the client sends you any message, you will receive it in receive() method, the client message can be str or bytes.
  7. If you want to send anything to the client:
    • In websocket class scope: You can send it with self.send() which only takes data.
    • Out of websocket class scope: You can send it with send_message_to_websocket() from panther.websocket, it's an async function which takes 2 args, connection_id and data(which can have any type):
      from panther.websocket import send_message_to_websocket
      await send_message_to_websocket(connection_id='7e82d57c9ec0478787b01916910a9f45', data='New Message From WS') 
  8. If you want to use webscoket in a backend with multiple workers, we recommend you to add RedisMiddleware in your configs [Adding Redis Middleware]
  9. If you don't want to add RedisMiddleware and you still want to run websocket with multiple workers with gunicorn, you have to use --preload, like below:

    gunicorn -w 10 -k uvicorn.workers.UvicornWorker main:app --preload

  10. If you want to close a connection:

    • In websocket class scope: You can close connection with self.close() method which takes 2 args, code and reason:
      from panther import status
      await self.close(code=status.WS_1000_NORMAL_CLOSURE, reason='I just want to close it')
    • Out of websocket class scope: You can close it with close_websocket_connection() from panther.websocket, it's async function with takes 3 args, connection_id, code and reason, like below:
      from panther import status
      from panther.websocket import close_websocket_connection
      await close_websocket_connection(connection_id='7e82d57c9ec0478787b01916910a9f45', code=status.WS_1008_POLICY_VIOLATION, reason='')
  11. Path Variables will be passed to connect():

     from panther.websocket import GenericWebsocket
     class UserWebsocket(GenericWebsocket):
         async def connect(self, user_id: int, room_id: str):
             await self.accept()
     url = {
         '/ws/<user_id>/<room_id>/': UserWebsocket   

  12. Enjoy.